Friday, March 13, 2020

Two-Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) Numbering

Two-Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) Numbering Free Online Research Papers Two-Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) Numbering for Telephone Numbering Plan Systems More Addresses, Less Number of Digits! Decimal National Numbering Plan†¦ Goodbye! Mag. Hasan Meslmani Abstract- In this paper, a new mechanism for Numbering Plan system of Geographical and Non-geographical for both Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is proposed using Two-Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Numbering (2DAAN), taking into account the increasing demands for numbering capacity for both subscribers and the services in order to meet growth of subscribers numbers and telephone services, such as Free Services or Value-Added Services. This research suggests a new mechanism for numbering which is different from the conventional methods for numbering plans according to recommendations of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) using Pre-Initial Access Isolation Principle (PIASP) and presenting the telephone number as an address for using the whole Possibilities range of Generated Addresses (PGA) for the usage elements. Therefore, this research aims to reduce the digits in telephone number for both fixed and mobile telephones, ren umbering the national call code or Local Area Code (LAC) within a certain country, renumbering the Country Code (CC) for each country according to ISO 3166 Alpha-2 Code list, standardization the Length of National Number, and standardization the National Numbering Plan (NNP) in each country. I. INTRODUCTION Two-Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) numbering This technique aims to create a huge ranges of addresses for numbering plan by means of using less number of digits taking into account designation of sufficient capacity for geographic areas and non geographic services to meet growth of telephone services, designation of numbering capacity for the future introduction of new services and designation of spare capacity in the form of codes and number ranges that are not associated with any known services and therefore potentially suitable for unforeseen expansion or the introduction of brand new services. The new mechanism depends on two main stages. The first one assumes enlargement the current numbering range by replacement its decimal elements with bigger range consists of the Latin characters elements which it fortunately already used in the current telephone keypad to execute some secondary functions. The second stage assumes using enlargement principle ones more by dropping these elements on coordinates axis by creating two dimensions mathematical model of Possibilities Theory to obtain on a big base which have the ability to generate huge range of addresses. It is the right time to redesign a new keypad which contains buttons presenting the Latin Alphabetical characters as a first function to support this technique, [1]. But this requires unfortunately partly or totally opposition some recommendations of the ITU on the international public telecommunication numbering plan such as E.123, E.163, E.164 and E.212, [2]. II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL A new mathematical model supporting the new mechanism of numbering plan for producing much more addresses sufficient to identify the huge numbers of subscribers has been developed. The general possibilities form of the Mathematical Model for the total sums of Total Generated Addresses (TGA) for a certain range can be written in the following expression (1): [1] (1) By choosing the Decimal Number range as a selected range, the previous expression can be re-written as: (2) (2) By applying this model on Two Dimensions Matrix (2D Matrix), The general form of Mathematical Model for the possibility of the produced numbers or addresses resulting from a certain range is shown in expression (3) (3) Now, by applying this model on Two Dimensions Matrix (2D Matrix), both rows and colons will be the 26th Latin alphabet characters resulting (26*26) Matrix and can be named 2D Alphabetical- Alphabetical Matrix. The components of all elements for the whole range of matrix is given in expression (4) (4) Classes of Calls When this study is applied for Calls Traffic according to Class of Calls for one month by random sample method on a set consisting of (100) suscribers belong to Sabil Exchange in Aleppo city, the following results have been obtaind and summerized in Table 1. Emergency Service International National Mobile Local Call Types 6 5 4 3 2 1 Levels %5 %5 %10 %15 %35 %40 Percentages Table 1: Calls classes As the result of that, six major classification types of calling can be followed when two A and B parties are executing calling. These classifications are: 1 Local Call 2 Mobile Call 3 National Call 4 International Call 5 Service Call 6 Emergency Call This classification will help the construction of a new hierarchy call address from one side, guiding to blow up the traditional design of the current telephone keypad and finally inspire the practical steps to redesign the button layout in the new keypad to support this hierarchy from other side, as it is illustrated in Fig. 1, [3,6]. Fig. 1: Classes of calls between the called parties (A) and (B) presentation and its percentages value. Application of Mathematical Model The general formula of the Mathematical Model for the total sums of Total Generated Addresses (TGA) possibilities for 2D Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix range can be shown in expression (4), from that, the following results can be obtained A. For n= 1 : B. For n= 2 : C. For n= 3 : D. For n= 4 : E. For n= 5 : From the previous (7), (10), (13), (16) and (19) equations and matrixes, the following Table shows the Total Generated Addresses (TGA) according to the number of digits for the 2D Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) numbering [1]. 5digit 4digit 3digit 2digit 1digit n 141,167,095,653,376 208,827,064,576 308,915,776 456,976 676 TGA Table 2: Shows the Total Generated Addresses (TGA) according to the number of digits in the proposed (2DAAM) numbering. While, the Total Generated Addresses (TGA) in connection with the number of digits for the Decimal Numbering can be summerized in Table 3 [7], [8]. 7digit 6digit 5digit 4digit 3digit 2digit 1digit n 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 TGA Table 3: Shows the Total Generated Addresses (TGA) according to the number of digits in the current decimal numbering. By applying this proposed model on different ranges, we can obtain of the following different curves which reflex the value of the selected range, as it shown in Fig. 2. Which shows a possibility of the Total generated addresses produced according to the number of digits in the present numbering system in comparison with other systems, which they are arranged from right to left as follows: 1. Decimal numbering system method 2. Mixed numbering system method 3. IPv4 numbering system method 4. 2D Alphabetical- Alphabetical numbering system method Fig. 2: Possibilities of the Total Generated Addresses (TGA) produced according to the number of digits. It is be seen obviously, that the upper curve (2D Alphabetical), which expresses of possibilities of producing the Total Generated Addresses using 2D Matrix components P(x) and P(y) for the Latin Alphabets range, will have the highest values in comparison with the other used ranges (Mixed), (IPv4) and (decimal) curves, [9]. III. THE NEW SUGGESTED HIERARCHY LEVELS In [1] and [10], The Hierarchy Levels Suggestion can be divided into two main sets as follow: A. Call Type The First set can be divided into six subsets as follows: 1. Local Call 2. Mobile Call 3. National Call 4. International Call 5. Service Call 6. Emergency Call B. Subscriber Address The second set can be divided into five subsets as follows: 1. State: can be represented by ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 Codes 2. City: can be represented also by Alpha-2 Codes 3. Exchange: can be represented by Alpha-2 Codes 4. Zone/ Cable: can be represented by Alpha-2 Codes 5. Subscriber: can be represented by Alpha-2 Codes Types of Two Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) calls In [1], Five types of calls using the 2DAAM are defined when the number of selection digits are equals to Subscriber Address mentioned above? (n=5): 1. Emergency Service Calls This category of calls includes all kinds of free services Emergency Service ? Numbers are identified by an ‘address’ reflex the two initial characters of the services name following the type of call Emergency sign or the service identifier ‘1’. This number or address is one digit in length. Example: 1 {services name} Example1 (fire): 1 FI Example2 (police): 1 PO The size of the numbers block allocated will generate (676) addresses for services. The service identifier ‘1’ combined with the short remainder of the number is intended to provide numbers that are easily remembered. 2. Very Local Calls This category of calls includes all calls between two subscribers belong to the same exchange. Very Local Calls? Numbers are identified by an ‘address’ reflex the two initial characters of the zones name and subscribers name, respectively following the type of very local call sign or the service identifier ‘2’. This number or address is two digits in length. Example: 2 {zones name} {subscribers name} Example: 2 ZH OM The block numbers allocated size will generate (456,976) addresses for each exchange. 3. Local Calls This category of calls includes all calls between two subscribers belong to a different exchanges in the same city or region has the same Local Area Code (LAC). Local Calls? Numbers are identified by an ‘address’ reflex the two initial characters of the exchanges name, zones name and subscribers name respectively? following the type of local call sign or the service identifier ‘3’. This number or address is three digits in length. Example: 3 {exchanges name} {zones name} {subscribers name} Example: 3 SA ZH OM The block numbers allocated size will generate (308,915,776) addresses for each city or region. 4. National Calls This category of calls includes all calls between two subscribers belong to a different exchanges in a different cities or regions has the same Country Code (CC). National Calls? Numbers are identified by an ‘address’ reflex the two initial characters of the citys name, exchanges name, zones name and subscribers name following the type of national call sign or the service identifier ‘4’. This number or address is four digits in length. Example: 4 {citys name} {exchanges name} {zones name} {subscribers name} Example: 4 AL SA ZH OM The block numbers allocated size will generate (208,827,064,576) addresses for each country. 5. International Calls This category of calls includes all calls between two subscribers belong to a different exchanges in a different country has a different Country Code (CC). International Calls? Numbers are identified by an ‘address’ reflex the two initial characters of the countrys name according to ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 Codes Countries Names table, citys name, exchanges name, zones name and subscribers name respectively following the type of international call sign or the service identifier ‘5’. This number or address is five digits in length. Example: 5 {countrys name} {citys name} {exchanges name} {zones name} {subscribers name} Example: 5 SY AL SA ZH OM The block numbers allocated size will generate (141,167,095,653,376) addresses for the world, or lets say (41,765,412,915,200) addresses for (200) countries around the world, [7]. Geographic Information System (GIS) It can be also noticed that each address such as (SY AL SA ZH OM) carries Geographic Information System (GIS) meanings; the former address can be read as follows: The subscriber Omar Meslmani (OM) is a Subscriber belongs to ZHra Zone (ZH) which belongs to Sabil Exchange (SA) in Aleppo City (AL) in Syria State (SY), as it shown in Fig. 3. [1-10]. Fig. 3: The suggested display of the new keypad. This range of addresses has the ability to define (6,425) address to every living person, whereas IPv4 supports 4.3Ãâ€"10*9 (4.3 billion) addresses, roughly 6.5 billion people population today, which is inadequate for giving even one ?address (0.66) to every living person, [11]. IV. REPRESENTATION THE SUBSCRIBER ADDRESS LEVELS We can present each level of the five subscriber address levels which consists of Alpha-2 Codes as mentioned above by only one digit product from cross point of the horizontal component on (x) axis with the vertical component on (y) axis depending on ?2D Matrix concept by special program means. A. Local Call representation Let us suppose that the calling party (A) wishes to execute a Local Call with a called party (B) which has the following address (SA ZH OM). Then the Local Call can be represented by three digits as it shown in Fig. 4. Fig 4: Local call representation. 1st Pair: SA (Cross Point of Horizontal Component S with Vertical Component A) 2nd Pair: ZH (Cross Point of Horizontal Component Z with Vertical Component H) 3rd Pair: OM (Cross Point of Horizontal Component O with Vertical Component M) Every pair can be represented by one digit according to the expanded Unicode coding method as it shown in Fig. 5. [1]. Fig. 5: Representation of the alphabetical pair. B. Mobile Call representation Let us suppose that the calling party (A) wishes to execute a Mobile Call with a called party (B) which has the following address (MT SA ZH OM). Then the Mobile Call can be represented by four digits as it shown in Fig. 6. [1]. Fig. 6: Mobile call representation. C. National Call representation Suppose that the calling party (A) wishes to execute a National? Call with another called party (B) which has the following address (DA DM TJ YM). This address will define the subscriber Yousef Meslmani (YM) which is a Subscriber belongs to Tenth Jazeera Zone (TJ) which belongs to Dummar Exchange (DM) from Damascus City (DA) in Syria State (SY). In this case the National Call can be represented by four digits as it shown in Fig. 7. [1] Fig. 7: National call representation. D. International Call representation Let us consider that the calling party (A) wishes to execute an International? Call with another called party (B) which has the following address (SY AL SA ZH OM). Then the International Call can be represented by five digits as it shown in Fig. 8. [1] Fig. 8: International call representation. E. Service Call representation The new mechanism of numbering should be having the ability to support all type of services calls. Let us suppose that the calling party (A) wishes to execute a Service? Call (Follow Me Immediately) with another (B) party which has the following address (JA MR HM). Then the Service Call can be represented by five digits as it shown in Fig. 9. [1,3-5] Fig. 9: Service call (Follow Me Immediately) representation. Let us suppose that the calling party (A) wishes to execute a Service? Call (Alarm Call) at seven clock (HH: 07) and thirty minute (MM: 30) for duration nine and ninety days (DD: 99). Then the Service Call can be represented by five digits as it shown in Fig. 10. [1,3-5] Fig. 10: Service call (Alarm Call) representation. F. Emergency Call representation Suppose that the calling party (A) wishes to execute an Emergency Call with a called party B (Fire) which has the following address (FI). Then the Emergency Call can be represented by one digit as it shown in Fig. 11. [1,3-5] Fig. 11: Emergency call representation. Extension of the Unicode Coding Method We suggest to modify the current database of an Unicode coding method? in order to have the ability to identify the additional (676) new characters or symbols of pair AA, AB, †¦, MA, MB, †¦, ZA, ZB, †¦, ZZ, which resulting from the proposed Mathematical Model for the total sums of Total Generated Addresses (TGA) possibilities for 2D Alphabetical- Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) range for (n=1). [9] Therefore, each pair can be represent by one symbol, then assign each one with the new hexadecimal suggested code of the extended Unicode Coding,? for instance RS= 20A8, whereas it represents in the current main version separately as follows R= 0052 and S= 0053 enable us to merge two symbols in one to save more Bytes!. V. SOME EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION Suggested Dialing of the Telephone Addresses A. Type of Call Selection The type of call can be determined by means of several ways in the suggested new keypad. For instance, we can create our own default call type to execute the desired selection by means of check mark method as it shown in Fig. 12. [1] Fig. 12: Setup default call type. B. Dialing Called Number The Dialing Called Number can be execute by another methods differ from the traditional method by means of new keypad which has been developed especially for the new mechanism of numbering according to the following flow chart illustrated in Fig. 13 [7, 8]. The Cursor Position? can be already determined by means of the new keypad type of call selection to reserve number of digits suits to the desired call and compares the value with the initial values of the parameters. Then apply two logical loops, the first one (Loop1) determines the segments of each digit, while, the second one (Loop2) determines the number of digits. [1] ? Fig. 13: Illustrates the flow chart for 2D Alphabetical- Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) numbering. 1. National Call Dialing Figure 14 illustrates stages of data reception of dialing the International Call, where the Parameter Initial Values will be as follows:? ? Type of Call = International {Intern} Cursor Position {P=5} Number of Digits {D=5} Fig. 14: International call dialing mechanism. The total length of address for the International Call dialing will be (5) digits long. The receiving data for the first digit (SY) will be received in the position no. (5), the second digit (AL) will be received in the position no. (4), the third digit (SA) will be received in the position no. (3), the forth digit (ZH) will be received in the position no. (2), and finally the fifth digit (OM) will be received in the position no. (1). 2. National Call Dialing Figure 15 illustrates stages of data reception of dialing the National Call, where the Parameter Initial Values will be as follows:? ? Type of Call = National {Nation} Cursor Position {P=4} Number of Digits {D=4} Fig. 15: National call dialing mechanism. The total length of address for the National Call dialing will be (4) digits long. The receiving data for the first digit (AL) will be received in the position no. (4), the second digit (SA) will be received in the position no. (3), the third digit (ZH) will be received in the position no. (2) and the forth digit (OM) will be received in the position no. (1). 3. Local Call Dialing Figure 16 illustrates stages of data reception of dialing the Local Call, where the Parameter Initial Values will be as follows:? ? Type of Call = Local {Local} Cursor Position {P=3} Number of Digits {D=3} Fig. 16: Local call dialing mechanism. The total length of address for the Local Call dialing will be (3) digits long. The receiving data for the first digit (SA) will be received in the position no. (3), the second digit (ZH) will be received in the position no. (2) and the third digit (OM) will be received in the position no. (1). 4. Emergency Call Dialing Figure 17 illustrates stages of data reception of dialing the Emergency ? Call, where the Parameter Initial Values will be as follows:? ? Type of Call = Emergency {Emerg} Cursor Position {P=1} Number of Digits {D=1} Fig. 17: Emergency call dialing mechanism. In this case, the total length of address for the Emergency Call dialing will be as short as (1) digit long and suits this kind of calls which require higher speed in dialing. The receiving data for the first digit (FI) will be received directly in the position no. (1). [1-10]. VI. CONCLUSION By applying this method of numbering, we can obtain several practice benefits such as: 1. Identification a Constant Length of the Telephone Address The identification of constant length of the telephone address will be formatted using the new suggested design of keypad which contains ready blocks for data reception according to 5 levels which represent the basic components of any subscriber. [1] The important result of this representation will be create a standard length of the telephone address can be used around the world and offer at the same time more addresses for far future without any changing. 2. Uniform Identification Format of the Equipment Number (EQN) As a result, the Equipment Number (EQN) of any subscriber [3-5], will identify with the telephone number or address itself. 3. Re-building New Hierarchy of the Telephone Exchange The proposed structure of next generation of the telephone exchanges focuses on cancellation some current exchange elements structure such as Shelf name and using uniform design of other element such as Blocks and Cables. [10] The following Table illustrates that the address of local call will reflex partially the basic elements parameters of exchange hierarchy Exchange room, Main Distribution Frame (MDF) and Network for the current hierarchies of exchanges which represent it the current hierarchy of Siemens (EWSD) system for instance comparing with the suggested hierarchy of the new (HASAN) system as it shown in Fig. 18. Fig. 18: Illustrate the current proposed parameters in the basic elements of exchanges (Exchange Room, MDF Room and Network). This Table shows the identification of all parameters of the various elements of communication system (Exchange, MDF and Network) according the suggested hierarchy from one side, and identifying this parameters partially with the telephone address according the suggested numbering plan from other side. Also the Table indicates to the unnecessary parameters which refer to by (X) sign and can be omitted in the new Hierarchy. [1,3-5] It believed, the time to create a standardized Worldwide Numbering Plans (WNP) instead of the traditional National Numbering Plans (NNP) has come which differ from one country to another by means of creating a certain keypad depending on investing of the Two Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Numbering (2DAAN)? and support a number of applications like cut, copy, pasting or predict text, or at least and as a first step, trying of investing the advanced present new generations of telephone keypads and its applications such as: BlackBerry which developed by the Canadian company Research In Motion (RIM), which has a built-in QWERTY keyboard. [12] IPhone which is an internet-connected multimedia smart phone designed and marketed ?by Apple Inc. Since its minimal hardware interface lacks a physical keyboard, the ?multi-touch screen renders a virtual keyboard when necessary. [13] For text input, we can also implement a virtual keyboard on the touch screen which has ?automatic spell checking and correction, predictive address capabilities for the 5 elements of suggested Hierarchy: State, City, Exchange, Zone and Subscriber. The keyboard can predict what word the user is ?typing and complete it, and correct for the accidental pressing of keys adjacent to the ?presumed desired key. [14,15] Furthermore, we can also use the next generation of this technique (WNP) in the future, which will be the Three Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical- Alphabetical Numbering (3DAAN) in the same manner mentioned above which can supports more and more addresses maybe for requirements of very far future or even forever. REFERENCES [1] M. S. H. Ali, M. N. Salaho and H. O. Meslmani, â€Å"Development a New Numbering Plan of Telephone Communication Systems,† Aleppo University Magazine publications, Engineering Science Series, vol. 63, Aleppo, Syria, 2008. [2] â€Å"ITU-T Recommendation E.164,† Assigned country codes, Geneva, Swiss, 2005. [3] â€Å"Digital electronic switching system EWSD,† Siemens training center for communication networks, Munich, Germany, 2000. [4] â€Å"Operating system documents of local exchange EWSD,† for Syrian Telecommunication Establishment (STE) project, Siemens company, Munich, Germany, Sept. 2001. [5] â€Å"Operating system documents of Ericsson exchange,† for Syrian Telecommunication Establishment (STE) project, Ericsson company, Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 2003. [6] â€Å"Syrian Estimation Group Results,† Geography and population, Damascus, Syria, 2007. [7] â€Å"Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ,† European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), Paris, France, 1997. [8] L. W. Couh, â€Å"Digital and Analog Communications System,† Macmillan publishing company, 2nd Ed., New York, USA, 1997. [9] L. HUGHES, â€Å"Data Communications,† Mc Graw-Hill, 2nd Ed., New York, USA, 1998. [10] M. S. H. Ali, M. N. Salaho and H. O. Meslmani, â€Å"Development a New Hierarchy of Exchanges,† Aleppo University, Magazine publications, Engineering Science Series, vol. 64, Aleppo, Syria, 2008. [11] â€Å"The World Fact Book,† Geography and population rank order publications, New York, USA, July 2007. [12] Research In Motion Reports Fourth Quarter And Year-End Results For Fiscal 2006. blackberry.com/ [13] Apple Inc. (2008-06-09). Apple Introduces the New iPhone 3G. Press release. ?apple.com/pr/library/2008/06/09iphone.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-09. [14] ?The most advanced mobile OS. Now even more advanced.. Scott Forstalls ?presentation. Apple. 2009-03-17. ? [15] Cohen, Peter, Cut and paste, MMS highlight iPhone 3.0 ?improvements. Macworld. 2009-03-17 ?macworld.com/article/139438/2009/03/iphone30user.html. ?Retrieved on 2009-04-01. ? Hasan Omar Meslmani was born in Aleppo, Syria, on June 4, 1964. He received B.Sc. (with honors) degrees in electrical and electronic engineering in 1988 and M.Sc. degrees in communication engineering in 2004, from Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria. He joined the Syrian Telecommunication Establishment (STE), Aleppo Directorate in 1988, as a technician engineer, from 1988 to 1990, he was operating and maintaining engineer at Jamilieh Exchange (NEC System NEAX61), from 1991 to 1992, he was an installation Department Head at Jamilieh Exchange, from 1992 to 1993, he was a supervisor engineer at Ensari Exchange, from 1993 to 1994, he was a supervisor engineer at Sabil Exchange, from 1994 to 2007, he was a Head Exchange of Sabil Exchange, from 1998 to 2007, he was a Supervisor for Automatic Billing System for Sabil Exchange in Aleppo, Successfully completed training course at Siemens Training Center for Communication Networks in Munich, Germany (Siemens System EWSD) in1992, he has been a member of the Telecommunication Development Committee in Syria for 21st century, in Syrian Telecommunication Establishment (STE) in1996, Successfully completed training course at STE Training Center for Radio Communications at High Institute for Application Technology Science in Damascus, Syria in1998, After that, a successfully completed training course at Ericsson Training Center for Communication Networks in Dublin, Ireland (Ericsson System AXE 10) in 2000. He enrolled as Ph.D. student in electronic engineering in Communication Department, Aleppo University in 2006. Research Papers on Two-Dimensions Alphabetical-Alphabetical Matrix (2DAAM) NumberingPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfThe Project Managment Office SystemIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalOpen Architechture a white paperResearch Process Part OneRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanAnalysis Of A Cosmetics Advertisement

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Draft Leadership Critique Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Draft Leadership Critique - Assignment Example One of the theories on leadership is by James Burns known as transformational theory of leadership. This theory is based on the belief that leaders and their followers work mutually in order to grow each other to higher levels of morality and motivation. It mostly involves engaging the minds and hearts of the employees (Ray, 2013, 59). It is beneficial in ensuring that everyone in the organization eventually reaches a higher sense of motivation, satisfaction with their work and a greater sense of achievement. In order for this kind of leadership to be successful, there is a need for a certain level of trust and concern rather than having control over the employees. This theory implies that leaders can only make employees follow in their footsteps of they also follow what they preach. Some of the main criticism of this theory is that it is too enlist and places too much emphasis on heroic aspects of leadership. The expected end result of this is that the followers are bound to be oppressed in a certain way. Transformational leaders rule under the notion that they have some sort of special abilities that their employees have no access to. Consequently, the destiny of their followers is tightly linked to the ambitions of their leaders. Secondly, in this kind of leadership, there is a likelihood that followers by be manipulated by their leaders and eventually end up losing more than they gain (Lussier & Achua, 2010, 39). Transactional theory of leadership, on the other hand, is based on the idea that the relationship that exists between leaders and their employees develops from the exchange of some form of reward (Bertocci, 2009, 56). The reward could be in terms of salary, praise, recognition or performance ratings. The main limitation of this form of leadership is that it implies that leaders will only reward employees when their

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Uncanny architecture---signifier of Victorian architecture Annotated Bibliography

Uncanny architecture---signifier of Victorian architecture - Annotated Bibliography Example Crinson also builds on his argument by offering an explanation on what the buildings represent in terms of architectural styles. He further explains that the architects made the styles absurdly incongruous. The architecture was a representation of what was happing during the time of construction. This kind of architecture is vividly applied on almost all the buildings that are dated the Victorian age. The buildings have a variety of readable meaning attributed to the architectural style, monuments, and convictions. They depict the cultural and religious aspect of the Victorian age (Crinson 5). He also notes that the architectural style, monuments and convictions, have over the years been transformed due to the continued interaction with different culture and modern architectural style from different parts of the world. Crinson does a review if the significant aspects that define the Victorian architecture noting that windows, door frames and roofing were significant aspects of the ar chitecture. He noted arched windows panels; double doors and brick roofing tiles were very significant in the Victorian architecture. Crinson provides validity to his arguments by providing evidence to support his claims. Citing an example, he gives sufficient evidence to support his claim by showing the cultural exchanges that influenced the Victorian architecture. He provides evidence through an objective overview rather than a narration of personal sentiments. The book is relevant to my study in that it addresses the qualities of the Victorian age architecture in specific the key elements that distinguish the Victorian architecture style from other architectural styles. In addition, the book provides targeted agendas on the thematic issues such as political agendas, religious, and racial aspects. The book’s targeted audience is any individual who is interested in learning about how the Western architecture has changed over time and

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Bring Mobile Phones to School Essay Example for Free

Bring Mobile Phones to School Essay It has been debated nationwide and even worldwide for and against students being allowed to bring mobile phones to school. Usually, a school consists of three parts namely, the Primary, Middle and Upper section. We live in the 21st century which is very much a digital age and nowadays, almost every student other than in primary section, has a mobile phone. In my opinion, mobile phones are good for children as long as they are educated in its appropriate usage and the privilege given without being abused. Here are some reasons and benefits as to why students should bring phones to school. In the past, children had less activities in and after school and parents often never knew where their children were until they came home. In today’s world, children are so involved in after school activities such as clubs and societies, sports, music and tuition as directed by parents. Parents need to coordinate with the children, coaches, teachers in charge and other parties within their busy day to day schedules. Mobile phones allow parents to communicate with children at any time. Parents can check up on children and arrange transportation or relay important information if necessary. This supports organizing the daily schedule as we go along the day’s activities and increases the safety aspect. Mobile phones can also be an invaluable tool in emergency situations. For instance, if a student is severely injured or there is a crisis situation, cell phones can allow students to contact authorities for help. This can be especially important for students who do not travel to and from school with a parent, but in public transportation or school vans. It also helps children to have communication and build up networks amongst groups of common interests. Facilities like SMS allow to reach and communicate with large groups instantly with a record for future references, which also will save time and money. This option is also an advantage for teachers to reach their students at large in an effective manner for common messages. Further, with the added options such as Dictionary, Thesaurus, Reminders, e-mails and camera, the mobile phone expands the knowledge base and the capacity of a child and his scope. These features are commonly available in all mobile phones. Moreover, the student who carries a mobile phone has to protect it, be disciplined in it’s usage and also has to be knowledgeable in using it to his or her benefit. This improves the capacity of responsibility, self-discipline and knowledge sharing of the child which are very important attributes in a person’s life.  In conclusion, I think students should be allowed to bring mobile phones to school under the parents’ guidance and the schools should be clear in communicating its rules and regulations in terms of usage of the phones within school hours.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Moral Sentiments and Determinism Essay -- Philosophy Philosophical Pap

ABSTRACT: P. F. Strawson’s essay "Freedom and Resentment" was a landmark in the study of determinism, free-will, and morality. It contributed a much-needed correction to the problem of overintellectualization as found in twentieth-century compatibilist literature. Although most of the central claims in Strawson’s essay are important and true, it fails to fill the lacuna in the analysis, discussion and proposals of traditional compatibilism. The reasons may be summarized as follows. The web of moral demands, feelings and participant attitudes comprises a set of facts within human social life which must be investigated in order to understand the relation (or lack thereof) between determinism and morality. If the facts themselves fill the gap, then it must be some adequate and coherent understanding of them. According to Strawson, the incompatibilist has an understandable dissatisfaction with his opponent’s account because, among other things, the latter fails to de al with the condition of desert and of the justice of moral condemnation and punishment. However, the theory of "Freedom and Resentment" fails equally on this point. What is now needed is a combination of factual study with ethical inquiry. The former would draw on the results of social psychology, the psychology of moral development, the social sciences of morals, and (philosophical) moral psychology. I In the light of a well-known distinction between participant moral attitudes and objective ones, the traditional issue of free will and morality is rephrased, in P.F.Strawson’s ‘Freedom and Resentment’ (henceforth FR), as follows: Could, or should, determinism lead us always to look on everyone exclusively in the objective way? The negative answer is defended and ... ...egal punishment, and the sociology and anthropology of morality. As far as the latter is concerned, that would amount to a sort of revival of the late l9th Century and early 20th Century studies in the social sciences of morals. In an age of multidisciplinary studies such as ours, FR may retrospectively be looked on by present-day students of our philosophical problem as containing an ‘ahead-of-its-time’ invitation, and an especially attractive one, for the philosopher to embark on such a multidisciplinary enterprise. References Honderich, T. (Ed.), Essays on Freedom of Action, Routledge and Kegan Paul, l973. Schlick, M., Problems of Ethics , Dover Publications, N.York, l939. Strawson, P.F., ‘Freedom and Resentment’ in Freedom and Resentment and other Essays, Methuen, l974 Skepticism and Naturalism: some varieties, Columbia University Press, l985.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Ethics Essay

Critical thinking and ethics tend to go hand in hand and are both used on a daily basis in our decision-making process. Our personal ethics will play a part in our critical thinking and its steps. Part of the critical thinking process is to evaluate all of the information we have gleaned. Ethics will automatically insert themselves into that process. As we evaluate the information, our ethics will determine which information is accurate and which information best fits our Ethical Lens Inventory. This relationship will lead to a creation that is within the scope of our ethics. Understanding the Relationship To fully understand the relationship between critical thinking and ethics we must understand critical thinking and its steps, our Ethical Lens Inventory, how ethics influences our decisions and how ethics applies to our professional and societal responsibilities. Critical Thinking Critical thinking is taking in all of the facts available to you and evaluating those facts to reach a concise decision. There are six steps in the critical thinking process. The first step is remembering. Remembering is the base for the follow on five steps. Remembering is the ability to recall key details and facts on the information you have reviewed. The second step is understanding. Understanding is the ability for you to take what you remembered and put it in your words. The third step is applying. Applying is the ability take the information and create a product or result. The fourth step is analyzing. Analyzing is the ability to break down your idea into parts. The fifth step is evaluating. Evaluating is taking the information you have and rating its truthfulness and usefulness. The sixth step is creating. Creating is the culmination of all the previous steps to produce a  result. Ethical Lens Inventory My Ethical Lens Inventory is Rights and Responsibility. I use my reasoning skill to determine my duties as well as the universal rules that each person should follow. My blind spot is the belief that motives justify methods. In this way, I tend not to use emotion but rather stay emotionally detached when applying ethics. People around me tend to think of me as callous and emotionless when making an ethical decision. Sometimes this can frighten or upset them, even though this is not my intention. Once people around me begin to understand my ethical lens inventory, they tend to respect me more and stop being frightened or upset. How My Personal Ethics Influence My Decision Making My personal ethics influences every decision I make. My personal ethics were acquired throughout my life and have become a part of who I am. They were instilled upon me through mentors, friends, loved ones and life experiences. None were forced upon me, and I made the conscious decision through these actions to choose what best suited me. Because of this, more often than not when making a decision my personal ethics are automatically inserted just as if I had taken a breath. My personal ethics helps me when making a decision by providing a guideline to the outcome of the decision, however this is not always the case. There are certain times and situations where I will consciously â€Å"bend† my personal ethics. However I bend them they remain within reason. How Ethics Apply to Professional and Societal Responsibilities Ethics means a great deal when we apply them to our professional and personal life. When people see the decisions we make and how we conduct ourselves they form opinions about us. This opinion can lead them to believe we are a good co-worker, boss, friend or lover. With poor ethics this can have an opposite effect. There are people who do not have good ethics, or choose to ignore them, who may try to influence our ethics. Being true to your ethics will only strengthen your resolve. Applying ethics in your professional life can lead you to be successful. The same can be true when applying ethics to your societal life. Consistency plays a significant role in this. You must remain consistent when applying your ethics. Failure to do so will lead some to think you do not have a good  ethical standard.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Marcus Cocceius Nerva, First of Romes Good Emperors

Marcus Cocceius Nerva (November 8, 30 CE–January 27, 98 CE) ruled Rome as emperor from 96–98 CE following the assassination of the much-hated Emperor Domitian. Nerva was the first of the five good emperors and was the first to adopt an heir who wasnt part of his biological family. Nerva had been a friend of the Flavians without children of his own. He built aqueducts, worked on the transport system, and built granaries to improve the food supply. Fast Facts: Marcus Cocceius Nerva Known For: Well-regarded and respected Roman emperorAlso Known As: Nerva, Nerva Caesar AugustusBorn: November 8, 30 CE in Narnia, Umbria part of the Roman EmpireParents: Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Sergia PlautillaDied: January 27, 98 CE at the Gardens of Sallust, RomePublished Works: Lyric poetryAwards and Honors:  Ornamenta Triumphalia for military serviceSpouse: NoneChildren: Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan, the governor of Upper Germany (adopted)Notable Quote: â€Å"I have done nothing that would prevent me laying down the imperial office and returning to private life in safety.† Early Life Nerva was born November 8, 30 CE, in Narnia, Umbria, north of Rome. He came from a long line of Roman aristocrats: his great-grandfather M. Cocceius Nerva was consul in 36 CE, his grandfather was a well-known consul and friend of Emperor Tiberius, his mothers aunt was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius, and his great uncle was a negotiator for the emperor Octavian. While little is known of Nervas education or childhood, he did not become a military professional. He was, however, well known for his poetic writings. Early Career Nerva, following in his familys footsteps, pursued a political career. He became praetor-elect in 65 CE and became an advisor to Emperor Nero. He discovered and exposed a plot against Nero (the Pisonian conspiracy); his work on this issue was so significant that he received military triumphal honors (though not a member of the military). In addition, statues of his likeness were placed in the palace. Neros suicide in 68 led to a year of chaos sometimes called the Year of Four Emperors. In 69, as a result of unknown services rendered, Nerva became a consul under Emperor Vespasian. Though there are no records to support the assumption, it seems likely that Nerva continued as consul under Vespasians sons Titus and Domitian until the year 89 CE. Nerva as Emperor Domitian, as a result of conspiracies against him, had become a harsh and vengeful leader. On September 18, 96, he was assassinated in a palace conspiracy. Some historians speculate that Nerva may have been involved in the conspiracy. At the very least, it seems likely that he was aware of it. On the same day, the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor. When appointed, Nerva was already well into his sixties and had health issues, so it was unlikely he would rule for long. In addition, he had no children, which raised questions about his successor; it may be that he was selected specifically because he would be able to handpick the next Roman emperor. The initial months of Nervas leadership focused on redressing Domitians wrongs. Statues of the former emperor were destroyed, and Nerva granted amnesty to many whom Domitian had exiled. Following tradition, he executed no senators but did, according to Cassius Dio, â€Å"put to death all the slaves and freedmen who conspired against their masters.† While many were satisfied with Nervas approach, the military remained loyal to Domitian, in part because of his generous pay. Members of the Praetorian Guard rebelled against Nerva, imprisoning him in the palace and demanding the release of Petronius and Parthenius, two of Domitians assassins. Nerva actually offered his own neck in exchange for those of the prisoners, but the military refused. Finally, the assassins were captured and executed, while Nerva was released. While Nerva retained power, his confidence was shaken. He spent much of the remainder of his 16-month reign attempting to stabilize the empire and ensure his own succession. Among his achievements were the dedication of a new forum, repairing roads, aqueducts, and the Colosseum, allotting land to the poor, reducing taxes imposed on Jews, instituting new laws limiting public games, and exercising greater oversight over the budget. Succession There is no record that Nerva married, and he had no biological children. His solution was to adopt a son, and he selected Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan, the governor of Upper Germany. The adoption, which took place in October of 97, allowed Nerva to placate the army by selecting a military commander as his heir; at the same time, it allowed him to consolidate his leadership and take control of the provinces in the north. Trajan was the first of many adopted heirs, many of whom served Rome extremely well. In fact, Trajans own leadership is sometimes described as a golden age. Death Nerva had a stroke in January 98, and three weeks later he died. Trajan, his successor, had Nervas ashes put in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the Senate to deify him. Legacy Nerva was the first of five emperors who oversaw the best days of the Roman Empire, as his leadership set the stage for this period of Roman glory. The other four good emperors were Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161), and Marcus Aurelius (161–180). Each of these emperors hand-selected his successor through adoption. During this period, the Roman Empire expanded to include the north of Britain as well as portions of Arabia and Mesopotamia. Roman civilization was at its height and a consistent form of government and culture expanded across the entire empire. At the same time, however, the government became increasingly centralized; while there were benefits to this approach, it also made Rome more vulnerable in the long run. Sources Dio, Cassius. Roman History by Cassius Dio published in Vol.  VIII of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1925.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. â€Å"Nerva.† Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica.ï » ¿Wend, David. Nerva. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.